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field manual 7 8

Our payment security system encrypts your information during transmission. We don’t share your credit card details with third-party sellers, and we don’t sell your information to others. Please try again.Please try again.Please try again. Please try your request again later. It also addresses rifle platoon and squad non-combat operations across the spectrum of conflict. Content discussions include principles, tactics, techniques, procedures, terms, and symbols that apply to small unit operations in the current operational environment (COE). FM 3-21.8 supersedes FM 7-8, Infantry Rifle Platoon and Squad, dated 22 April 1992 (with change 1, dated 1 March 2001). It is not intended to be a stand-alone publication. To fully understand operations of the rifle platoon and squad, leaders must have an understanding of FM 3-21.10, The Infantry Rifle Company, and FM 3-21.20 (FM 7-20), The Infantry Battalion. The primary audiences for this manual are Infantry rifle platoon leaders, platoon sergeants, and squad and fire team leaders. Secondary audiences include, instructors in U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) schools, writers of Infantry training literature, other Infantry leaders and staff officers, and Reserve Officer Training Candidate (ROTC) and military academy instructors. Infantry leaders must understand this manual before they can train their companies using ARTEP 7-8 MTP, and ARTEP 7-8 Drill. They should use this manual as a set along with the publications listed in the references. The Summary of Changes list major changes from the previous edition by chapter and appendix. Although these changes include lessons learned from training and U.S. Army operations all over the world, they are not specific to any particular theater of war. They are intended to apply across the entire spectrum of conflict. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no Kindle device required.

Show details In order to navigate out of this carousel please use your heading shortcut key to navigate to the next or previous heading. In order to navigate out of this carousel please use your heading shortcut key to navigate to the next or previous heading. Register a free business account To calculate the overall star rating and percentage breakdown by star, we don’t use a simple average. Instead, our system considers things like how recent a review is and if the reviewer bought the item on Amazon. It also analyzes reviews to verify trustworthiness. Please try again later. Logan 5.0 out of 5 stars That way, if the LT or PSG gets pissy about you being on your phone while chilling at the cof, you can blow their minds by showing them the Infantry Field Manual. In fact, you could possibly even read it. Gives you an edge when Army Jeopardy starts.I bought 2, one to keep at home station, and one for my home library. A good investment, and a must have for all 11 series army soldiersItem is as described. Will use the seller again. Recommend to others.Page 1 of 1 Start over Page 1 of 1 In order to navigate out of this carousel please use your heading shortcut key to navigate to the next or previous heading. Please try again.Please try again.Please try again. Please try your request again later. It also addresses rifle platoon and squad non-combat operations across the spectrum of conflict. Anyone attempting to gain an understanding of military concepts and operations will benefit from reading this book or using the interactive table of contents to jump to the topics that interest you. They should use this manual as a set along with the publications listed in the references. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no Kindle device required. In order to navigate out of this carousel please use your heading shortcut key to navigate to the next or previous heading.

In order to navigate out of this carousel please use your heading shortcut key to navigate to the next or previous heading. Register a free business account To calculate the overall star rating and percentage breakdown by star, we don’t use a simple average. These techniques are used throughout the planning and execution phases of platoon and squad tactical operations. These topics pertain to all combat operations. Their application requires time. With more time, leaders can plan and prepare in depth. With less time, they must rely on previously rehearsed actions, battle drills, and standing operating procedures. Mission tactics places the relationship of command, control, and communications in proper perspective by emphasizing the predominance of command. This emphasis on command, rather than control, provides for initiative, the acceptance of risk, and the rapid seizure of opportunities on the battlefield. Mission tactics can be viewed as freedom of action for the leader to execute his mission in the way he sees fit, rather than being told how to do it. Mission tactics reinforced by the knowledge of the higher commander's intent and focused on a main effort establishes the necessary basis for small-unit leadership. Leaders must be provided the maximum freedom to command and have imposed on them only the control necessary to synchronize mission accomplishment. Sometimes leaders must issue specific instructions. Normally, this is necessary when the unit's actions must be synchronized with other actions. Mission tactics, as a command philosophy, recognizes the many tools available to the leader, but emphasizes that there is no substitute for the personal element of command. Initiative must be driven by the commander's intent, not merely by a desire for independent action. Leaders must be resourceful enough to adapt to situations as they are, not as they were expected to be. Control restricts command. Generally, increased control leads to less application of command.

Not all control is bad or counterproductive. For example, common doctrine is a form of control in that all leaders expect their subordinates to understand and apply the tenets of doctrine. Another common source of control is the use of graphics for operation overlays. While optional and situationally-dependent, these are restrictive and must be reviewed by the leader before implementation. Each control measure must have a specific purpose that contributes to mission accomplishment. If it dots not pass this purpose test, it unnecessarily restricts freedom of action and should not be used. The more complex the operation, the greater the amount of control needed. The challenge to leaders is to provide the minimal amount of control required and still allow for decentralized decision making in each situation. It recognizes that the subordinate is often the only person at the point of decision who can make an informed decision. Guided by the commander's intent, the mission, and the concept of the operation, the leader can make the right decision. By limiting the ways in which a task is performed to standard, battle drills and unit SOPs provide a common basis for action: allow for quick, practiced response; decrease the probability for confusion and loss of cohesion; and reduce the number of decisions to the essential minimum. Its purpose provides the basis for decision and allows freedom of action. Its task provides a basis for establishing the main effort and focuses all other actions toward mission accomplishment. This allows the maximum possible freedom of action for the subordinate leader tasked with executing the main effort. Leaders executing the supporting effort will have less freedom of action because they must key their actions on the main effort. The concept of the operation also details the control of fires and other combat multipliers which must be synchronized and focused on the main effort.

Control using time is especially critical when the platoon's actions must be synchronized with other units or supporting elements. These include instructions to subordinate units, fire commands, and the use of operational graphics in overlays. While normally optional and situationally-dependent, control measures are potentially restrictive and must be reviewed by leaders before incorporating them into their plans. To ensure the proper amount of control, each control measure must have a specific purpose that contributes to mission accomplishment. If it does not pass this test, it unnecessarily restricts freedom of action and should not be used. They give orders and instructions that communicate the higher commander's intent; the mission (task and purpose) of the unit; and the concept of the operation, to include control measures. They also use mission tactics to ensure that subordinates understand that they are expected to use initiative in making decisions when the situation is no longer what it was expected to be. It begins when he is alerted for a mission. It starts again when he receives a change or a new mission. The troop-leading procedure comprises the steps listed below. Steps 3 through 8 may not follow a rigid sequence. Many of them may be accomplished concurrently. In combat, rarely will leaders have enough time to go through each step in detail. Leaders must use the procedure as outlined, if only in abbreviated form, to ensure that nothing is left out of planning and preparation, and that their soldiers understand the platoon's and squad's mission and prepare adequately. They continuously update their estimates throughout the preparation phase and adjust their plans as appropriate. The leader may receive the mission in a warning order, an operation order (OPORD), or a fragmentary order (FRAGO). He immediately begins to analyze it using the factors of METT-T: The remaining two thirds is for subordinates to plan and prepare for the operation.

Leaders should also consider other factors such as available daylight and travel time to and from orders and rehearsals. In the offense, the leader has one third of the time from his receipt of the mission to the unit's LD time. In the defense, he has one third of the time from mission receipt to the time the squad or platoon must be prepared to defend. This is reverse planning. He must allow enough time for the completion of each task. The leader provides initial instructions in a warning order. The warning order contains enough information to begin preparation as soon as possible. Platoon SOPs should prescribe who will attend all warning orders and the actions they must take upon receipt: for example, drawing ammunition, rations and water, and checking communications equipment. The warning order has no specific format. One technique is to use the five-paragraph OPORD format. The leader issues the warning order with all the information he has available at the time. He provides updates as often as necessary. The leader never waits for information to fill a format. A sample warning order is in Figure 2-1. If available, the following information may be included in a warning order. The leader develops an estimate of the situation to use as the basis for his tentative plan. The estimate is the military decision making process. It consists of five steps: detailed mission analysis, situation analysis and course of action development, analysis of each course of action, comparison of each course of action, and decision. The decision represents the tentative plan. The leader updates the estimate continuously and refines his plan accordingly. He uses this plan as the start point for coordination, reconnaissance, task organization (if required), and movement instructions. He works through this problem solving sequence in as much detail as time available allows.

As the basis of his estimate, the leader considers the factors of METT-T: He analyzes it in light of the commander's intent two command levels higher, and derives the essential tasks his unit must perform in order to accomplish the mission. He identifies their greatest threat to his mission find their greatest vulnerability. The leader considers ground that allows him observation of the enemy throughout his area of operation. He considers fields of fire in terms of the characteristics of the weapons available to him; for example, maximum effective range, the requirement for grazing fire, and the arming range and time of flight for antiarmor weapons. The leader looks for terrain that will protect him from direct and indirect fires (cover) and from aerial and ground observation (concealment). In the defense, he considers how he will tie in his obstacles to the terrain to disrupt, turn, fix, or block an enemy force and protect his own forces from enemy assault. The leader considers key terrain in his selection of objectives, support positions, and routes in the offense, and on the positioning of his unit in the defense. An avenue of approach is an air or ground route of an attacking force of a given size leading to its objective or key terrain in its path. In the offense, the leader identifies the avenue of approach that affords him the greatest protection and places him at the enemy's most vulnerable spot. In the defense, the leader positions his key weapons along the avenue of approach most likely to be used by the enemy. The leader considers the strength of subordinate units, the characteristics of his weapon systems, and the capabilities of attached elements as he assigns tasks to subordinate units. The platoon may need to begin movement while the leader is still planning or forward reconnoitering. The platoon sergeant or a squad leader may bring the platoon forward, usually under the control of the company executive officer or first sergeant.

This step could occur at any time during the troop-leading procedure. When time does not allow, the leader must make a map reconnaissance. The leader must consider the risk inherent in conducting reconnaissance forward of friendly lines. Sometimes the leader must rely on others (for example, scouts) to conduct the reconnaissance if the risk of contact with the enemy is high. He should review his mission, as he received it from his commander, to ensure that his plan meets the requirements of the mission and stays within the framework of the commander's intent. Platoon and squad leaders normally issue oral operations orders. When this is not possible, they should use a terrain model or sketch. Leaders may require subordinates to repeat all of part of the order or demonstrate on the model or sketch, their understanding of the operation. They should also quiz their soldiers to ensure that all soldiers understand the mission. Chapter 5 provides a list of questions that leaders can ask to determine if the soldiers understand the mission. Once the order has been issued, it can rehearse mission specific tasks. The platoon sergeant spot checks throughout the unit's preparation for combat. The platoon leader and platoon sergeant make a final inspection. They should inspect-- He normally uses the OPORD format, but addresses only those elements that have changed. The leader should make his instructions brief, simple, clear, and specific. The format is the same as the five-paragraph OPORD. It shows boundaries, unit positions, routes, objectives, and other control measures. It helps to clarify the operation order. Platoons normally trace their overlays from the company operations map. Squad leaders transfer control measures on to their maps as needed. The subordinate's need for higher unit graphics must be balanced against the risk of the enemy obtaining this information.

He may also use concept sketches--large, rough drawings of the objective areas--to show the flow of events and actions clearly. It is not necessarily drawn to scale. It is effective for briefing and discussing the actions on the objective. It may depict the entire mission area. However, for offense missions, priority should be given to building a model of the objective area. The leader should identify the grid squares that the model will show. These ensure a more accurate model. Leaders look for terrain that avoids obstacles, provides protection from direct and indirect fires and from ground and aerial observation, avoids key terrain that may be occupied by the enemy, allows freedom to maneuver, and avoids natural lines of drift or obvious terrain features. If key terrain cannot be avoided, leaders plan to reconnoiter it before moving through. When operating as an advance or flank guard for a larger force, platoons and squads may be tasked to occupy key terrain for a short time while the main body bypasses it. Formations and movement techniques provide security by-- Section III provides a matrix to help leaders in determining the best formation and technique based on METT-T. Paragraph 2-11 describes actions taken by platoons and squads to secure danger areas before crossing them. Leaders must ensure that camouflage used by their soldiers is appropriate to the terrain and season. Platoon SOPs specify elements of noise, light, and radiotelephone discipline. (See Chapter 5.) They employ the same techniques described above to move as securely as possible. Section IV describes the techniques used by platoons executing a guard mission in a movement to contact. They watch the same sectors that were assigned to them for the movement. Leaders establish OPs, and orient machine guns and antiarmor weapons along likely enemy approaches. Soldiers remain alert and keep movement to a minimum. During limited visibility, leaders incorporate the use of night vision devices.

The platoon leader ensures that the platoon halts on defensible terrain. He establishes the defense using the same considerations discussed in Section V. He must provide a specific location and instructions concerning the initiation and conduct of the ambush and the link-up of the squad with the platoon. Platoons and squads execute guard or screening missions as part of a larger force in a movement to contact. (See Section III.) Reconnaissance patrols are conducted before executing offensive operations to find the enemy and determine his strength and dispositions. Chapter 3 discusses techniques for platoons and squads conducting reconnaissance patrols. Platoons and squads use the same security techniques for movement discussed above while moving from assembly areas to the objective. The base-of-fire and maneuver elements of the platoon must provide their own security while executing their specific tasks. The platoon sergeant or leader controlling the base-of-fire element should designate soldiers on the flanks of the position to provide observation and, if necessary, fires to the flanks while the element engages the enemy on the objective. The base-of-fire element also provides security to its rear. The maneuver element must secure its own flanks and rear as it assaults across the objective. Platoon leaders should consider designating assaulting buddy teams to observe the flanks and rear. When clearing trenches, the platoon should be alert against local counterattacks along cleared portions of the trench behind the lead fire team. The base-of-fire element provides security for the maneuver element by engaging any counterattacking or reinforcing forces if it can do so without endangering the maneuver element with its own fires. They do this by establishing OPs along likely approaches and by establishing overlapping sectors of fire to create all-round security. (See Section V.

) They look for terrain that will protect them from enemy observation and fires and, at the same time, provide observation and fires into the area where they intend to destroy the enemy or defeat his attack. When necessary leaders use defensive techniques, such as reverse slope or perimeter defense, to improve the security of the defensive position. Leaders plan protective obstacles to the flanks and rear of their positions and tie them in with supplementary fires. Leaders consider adjacent key terrain that threatens the security of their positions. They secure this terrain by posting OPs and by covering it with direct and indirect fires. Finally, leaders establish OPs along the most likely enemy approaches into the position or sector to provide early warning. The platoon leader designates the general location for the OP and the routes to and from the OP. The squad leader establishing the OP selects the specific site. Section XII provides a detailed discussion of the techniques used by platoons and squads in establishing and manning OPs. When a platoon performs a screen mission for a larger force in a defense, it may establish squad-sized OPs that are well dispersed. The squads conduct patrolling missions between these OPs to establish the screen. These patrols should include observation of dead space, gaps between units, open flanks, and gaps or lanes in tactical and protective wire. Patrols may also be used to establish and relieve OPs. The platoon leader must ensure that all patrols not initiated by his higher headquarters are coordinated with them. Chapter 3 provides detailed discussion of patrolling techniques for platoons and squads. These systems should be incorporated into the platoon sector sketch. Passive measures also include camouflage; movement control; and noise, light, and radiotelephone discipline. Platoons may employ deceptive measures for local security such as dummy positions or supplemental wire.

Platoons may conduct deception operations as part of a larger force. These operations may include demonstrations, feints, displays, or ruses. In most instances platoons execute missions as normal but on a limited scale (feint), or to present a false picture to the enemy. Squads use formations for control flexibility and security. Leaders choose formations based on their analysis of the factors of METT-T. Figure 2-6, compares formations. Leaders are up front in formations.The interval between soldiers in the wedge formation is normally 10 meters. The wedge expands and contracts depending on the terrain. When rough terrain, poor visibility, or other factors make control of the wedge difficult, fire teams modify the wedge. The normal interval is reduced so that all team members can still see their team leader and the team leaders can still their squad leader. The sides of the wedge can contract to the point where the wedge resembles a single file. When moving in less rugged terrain, where control is easier, soldiers expand or resume their original positions. ( Figure 2-4 ). They include the squad column and squad line. A comparison of the formations is in Figure 2-10. It provides good dispersion laterally and in depth without sacrificing control, and facilitates maneuver. The lead fire team is the base fire team. When the squad moves independently or as the rear element of the platoon, the rifleman in the (rail fire team provides rear security ( Figure 2-7 ). When a squad is acting as the base squad, the fire team on the right is the base fire team. The squad file has the same characteristics as the fire team file. If the squad leader desires to increase his control over the formation, exert greater morale presence by leading from the front, and be immediately available to make key decisions, he will move forward to the first or second position. Additional control over the rear of the formation can be provided by moving a team leader to the last position. ( Figure 2-9.

) The leader should weigh these carefully to select the best formation based on his mission and on METT-T analysis. A comparison of the formations is in Figure 2-17. It provides good dispersion both laterally and in depth, and simplifies control. The lead squad is the base squad. They normally move with the platoon leader so he can quickly establish a base of fire. This formation allows the delivery of maximum fire to the front but little fire to the flanks ( Figure 2-12 ). This formation is hard to control, and it does not lend itself well to rapid movement. When two or more platoons are attacking, the company commander chooses one of them as the base platoon. The base platoon's center squad is its base squad. When the platoon is not acting as the base platoon, its base squad is its flank squad nearest the base platoon. The machine guns can move with the platoon, or they can support by fire from a support position (not shown). This is the basic platoon assault formation. The platoon leader can use this formation when he does not want to deploy all personnel on line, and when he wants the squads to react to unexpected contact ( Figure 2-13 ). This formation is easier to control, and it lends itself better to rapid movement than the platoon-line or squads-on-line formation; however, it is harder to control than and does not facilitate rapid movement as well as a platoon column. When two or more platoons are moving, the company commander chooses one of them as the base platoon. When the platoon is not the base platoon, its base squad is its flank squad nearest the base platoon. It also has one squad in the rear that can either overwatch or trail the other squads. This formation is hard to control; movement is slow The platoon leader designates one of the front squads to be the platoon's base squad. It provides a large volume of fire to the front or flanks. It allows the platoon leader to make contact with a squad and still have one or two squads to maneuver.

The lead squad is the base squad. One method is to have three-squad files follow one another using one of the movement techniques. Another method is to have a single platoon file with a front security element (point) and flank security elements. This formation is used when visibility is poor due to terrain, vegetation, or light conditions. ( Figure 2-16.) The distance between soldiers is less than normal to allow communication by passing messages up and down the file. The platoon file has the same characteristics as the fire team and squad files. There are three movement techniques: traveling, traveling overwatch, and bounding overwatch. The selection of a movement technique is based on the likelihood of enemy contact and the need for speed. Factors to consider for each technique are control, dispersion, speed, and security ( Figure 2-18 ). Movement techniques are not fixed formations. They refer to the distances between soldiers, teams, and squads that vary based on mission, enemy, terrain, visibility, and any other factor that affects control. Soldiers must be able to see their fire team leader. The squad leader must be able to see his fire team leaders. The platoon leader should be able to see his lead squad leader. Leaders control movement with arm-and-hand signals. They use radios only when needed. Any of the three movement techniques (traveling, traveling overwatch, bounding overwatch) can be used with any formation. The platoon leader determines and directs which movement technique the squad will use. Traveling overwatch is used when contact is possible ( Figure 2-20 ). Attached weapons move near the squad leader and under his control so he can employ them quickly. Bounding overwatch is used when contact is expected, when the squad leader feels the enemy is near (movement, noise, reflection, trash, fresh tracks, or even a hunch), or when a large open danger area must be crossed. Soldiers scan for enemy positions.

The squad leader usually stays with the overwatch team. ( Figure 2-21 ). The overwatching team leader must know the route and destination of the bounding team. The bounding team leader must know his team's destination and route, possible enemy locations, and actions to take when he arrives there. He must also know where the overwatching team will be, and how he will receive his instructions. The cover and concealment on the bounding team's route dictates how its soldiers move. Successive bounds are easier to control; alternate bounds can be faster. ( Figure 2-22.) The platoon leader determines and directs which movement technique the platoon will use. Traveling overwatch is used when contact is possible but speed is needed ( Figure 2-24 ). The platoon leader moves where he can best control the platoon. The platoon sergeant travels with the trailing squad, though he is free to move throughout the formation to enforce security, noise and light discipline, and distances between squads. The lead squad uses traveling overwatch, and the trailing squads use traveling. Bounding overwatch is used when contact is expected ( Figure 2-25 ). Platoons conduct bounding overwatch using successive or alternate bounds. One squad bounds forward to a chosen position, then it becomes the overwatching element unless contact is made en route. The bounding squad can use either traveling overwatch, bounding overmatch, or individual movement techniques (low and high crawl, and short rushes by fire team or pairs). One squad overwatches the bounding squad from covered positions from which it can see and suppress likely enemy positions. Soldiers use sunning techniques to view their assigned sector. The platoon leader remains with the overmatching squad. Normally, the platoon's machine guns are located with the overwatching squad also. One squad is uncommitted and ready for employment as directed by the platoon leader.